페이지 정보작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 625회 작성일 11-12-06 10:41
6강 Psychologist Solomon Asch wanted to discover whether people's tendency to agree with their peers was stronger than their tendency toward independent thought and rational judgment. Asch assembled groups of twelve university student and announced that they were taking part in an experiment on visual perception. He showed them three line segments, and asked each one in turn which line was the longest. It was an easy task and the correct answer was obvious. However, Asch had secretly instructed all but the last person in each group, who was the real subject of the experiment, to say that the medium-length line was the longest. As it turned out, over 70 percent of the real subjects caved in to group pressure and said that the medium-length line was the longest.
1.There is one central law about study: the law of mass effect. this states that the amount of work you do is strongly correlated with the amount of time you spend doing it. Certainly, many students study in an inefficient way, so that long hours of hard work achieve much less than they could. But it is important not to believe the myth that by studying incredibly efficiently you can achieve a lot by doing remarkably little. What you can do is achieve a great deal by combining work and recreation in moderate amounts. Any worthwhile study will therefore take some time. The main reason why people who study often achieve less than they want to is that they do not put in the hours. Therefore, if you want to study, you need to set aside time to work.
2. In one study, psychologist Elizabeth Loftus showed a group of students a video of an automobile accident in which one driver runs through a stop sign, turning right and causing a five-car collision. After that, she asked half the students, "How fast was Car A going when it ran through the stop sign?" she asked the other half, "How fast was Car A going when it turned right?" Loftus then asked everyone, "Did you see a stop sign for Car A?" Fifty-three percentage of the students in the first group answered that they had seen the stop sign, yet only thirty-five percentage of the students in the second group indicated that they had noticed it. Loftus concludes that we can affect responses by stating or deleting key information that makes our questions contextually appropriate. In this case, the Key information is the existence of the stop sign.
3. Numerous humanitarian campaigns to end world hunger have been mounted in the last 50 years. A number of serious famines have been moderated or averted by these efforts. And the need for ongoing emergency food aid is undeniable. However, routinely supplying food aid in developing countries may be the worst thing to do. The price of food supplied by other countries for emergency aid is almost free or very cheap. And people will not pay more than they have to for food. Therefore, free or very cheap foreign food undercuts the local market. In effect, the local farmer must compete economically with free or low-cost imported food. When they cannot earn a profit, they stop producing and eventually enter the ranks of the poor. The cycle continues and the entire local economy deteriorates in the long run.
4. In the early 1840s, anesthesia was first used to relieve pain during surgery. The use of anesthetics allowed doctors to experiment with operation that had never before been possible. Many people anticipated the operation could help the treatment of a variety of serious diseases. Yet, throughout the century, hospitals could be dangerous places. Surgery was performed with dirty instruments in damp rooms. Often, a patient would survive an operation, only to die days later of infection. For the poor, being admitted to a hospital was often a death sentence. Wealthy or middle class patients insisted on treatment in their own homes. So, many people said, "The first requirement in a hospital is that it should do the sick no harm." And they insisted that surgeons sterilize their instruments and wash their hands before operating.
5. Most stars die quietly, using up all their fuel through nuclear fusion. But if a star is big enough and hot enough, it can explode. This explosion is called a supernova. A supernova takes less than fifteen seconds to complete. The explosion is so bright that a supernova from a single star can outshine an entire galaxy for months. It generates enough heat to create even heavier elements: mercury, gold, and silver. According the big bang theory, life on earth exists because of supernovas. The theory holds that all the elements heavier than oxygen on earth were created in the past explosion of giant stars. The potassium in your banana did not have its beginning on an island in the Caribbean. It may have been created a long time ago in a supernova.
6. Another definition of religion among social scientists (particularly social psychologists) views religion as any attempt to answer existential questions (e.g., 'Is there life after death?"). This definition casts religion in a functional light as it is seen as serving a specific purpose in society. As is the case with the sacred/profane typology, however, this definition is also often criticized for being broad and overly encompassing. For instance, using this definition, someone who attends religious services weekly but makes no attempt answer existential questions would not be considered religious. At the other extreme, an unbeliever who believes that existence ends with physical death, would be considered religious because he or she has attempted to answer a key existential question.
7. We see it as natural that parents should make sacrifices to look after their children, and that children should respect their parents. This is not surprising, for such behavior is a result of the mode of action of natural selection. Natural selection operates to ensure that individuals behave in a way that maximizes their life time reproductive success and also that of their descendants and close relatives. The genetic constitution of those who leave more healthy offspring than others will be better represented in succeeding generations. In looking after their children, parents are ensuring the survival of individuals who behave in the same way as they do. And they are likely to pass on similar genetic material. Thus looking after one's children is in keeping with the dictates of natural selection.
8. To become the leader of a new market category, you should be equipped with a unique collection of resources. Those kinds of resources can be used to deliver so much appeal to customers that they rush to buy your products while your competitors will be attempting to overtake your lead in the new market. And one of such resources is special knowledge about your targeted customers. Competitors typically do a superficial job getting to know customers and failing to attain an intimate, personal relationship with them. That is an opening for you. It clarifies direction. It leads your employees to more quickly discover and anticipate what your customers want in the first product and in following one. An outstanding ability to use customer knowledge propels your enterprise into the leadership position of a new market category.
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