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5강 빈칸완성 (2)

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작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 807회 작성일 11-05-05 10:22


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[Zoom In]  In a classic set of studies over a ten-year period, biologist Gerald Wilkinson found that, when vampire bats return to their communal nests from a successful night's foraging, they frequently  vomit blood and share it with other nest-mates, including even non-relatives. The reason, it turns out, is that blood-sharing greatly improves each bat's chances of survival. A bat that fails to feed for two nights is likely to die. Wilkinson showed that the blood donors are typically sharing their surpluses and, in so doing, are saving unsuccessful foragers that are close to starvation. So the costs are relatively low and the benefits are relatively high. Since no bat can be certain of success on any given night, it is likely that the donor will itself eventually need help from some nest-mate. In effect, the vampire bats have created a kind of mutual insurance system.

1.  Try introducing yourself to someone without mentioning your job or your profession. Just talk about who you are. You might find you have surprisingly little to say! How would you approach this? Would you define yourself by your family?  (I have noticed that many Asians introduce themselves by telling about their families-"I am from a family of five. I live with my two sisters, my parents, and my grandparents"-in addition to telling about what their job role is.) Or would you define yourself by where you live? By what you like? By what you think is important? By what you have learned recently? Would those seem like awkward things to talk about? If so, then how indeed would you explain who you are without referring to what you do? In the United States we are so "doing-oriented" that it may be hard to define ourselves in any other way!

2.  Silence plays an important part in the Western Apache's societies as any verbal talk does. (Children returning from government boarding schools are greeted with silence and the children themselves are expected to be silent. Silence is maintained until each person once again becomes accustomed to the presence of the others. When one is `cussed out,` i.e.,(idest) disciplined verbally, silence is again the appropriate response, even though the `cussing out` may be undeserved; the Western Apache believe that responding only serves to make matters worse. The initial stages of courting behavior also require silence; in this case, silence is taken to be a proper indication of the shyness that is expected between two people attempting to enter into a close relationship. They regard talkativeness in such a situation, especially in the female of the pair, as immodest.

3.  According to a recent survey on factors affecting consumer choices, taste ranks the highest. Next comes price, and healthfulness is only third on the scale, although consumers say they wat healthier options. Indeed, tate is the one thing they are not willing to compromise. The minute you start whispering 'this is healthier for you,' people start getting very nervous about the taste. For example, if you start talking about how healthy a hamburger is, people will start to think it must taste awful. This bias extends beyond fast food as well. In an experiment, simply labeling an energy bar as containing '10 grams of soy protein" led people to rate it as less tasty with an "unpleasant aftertaste," compared to another group who ate an identical energy bar that was instead simply labeled as containing "10 grams of protein."

4.  Liberals tend to view politics and economics as separate and autonomous areas of activity. Many liberals believe that governments should not interfere in economic transactions and that their role should be limited to creating an open environment in which individuals and private firms can freely express their economic preferences. Thus, the stat should prevent restraint on competition and provide ;public goods such as national defense and infrastructure (roads and railways) to facilitate production and transportation. If governments permit the market to operate freely, a natural division of labor develops in which each country produces those goods for which it has a comparative advantage and everyone benefits from the efficient use of the world's scarce resources.

5.  At the San Diego Zoo, right next to the primate habitats, there's a display featuring half a dozen life-size gorillas made out of bronze. Posted nearby is a sign reading CAUTION; GORILLA STATUES MAY BE HOT. Everywhere you turn, the obvious is being stated. CANNON MAY BE LOUD. MOVING SIDEWALK IS ABOUT TO END. To people who don't  run around suing one another, such signs suggest a crippling lack of intelligence. Place bronze statures beneath the southern California sun, and of course they're going to get hot. Cannons are supposed to be loud, that's their claim to fame, and-like it or not-the moving sidewalk is bound to end sooner or later. It's hard trying to explain a country whose motto has become "you can't claim that I didn't warn you."

6.  Suppose a woman is out walking on a pleasant summer evening and sees her neighbor, a man, in his yard. She comments on the number of fireflies that are out that evening. "It looks like the Fourth of July." The man agrees and then launches into a lengthy commentary on how the insects' lighting is part of a complex mating ritual. The woman becomes irritated, abruptly finishes the conversation, and walks on. This incident shows that while both neighbors had the good intention of engaging in a friendly conversation they had different orientation to the purpose of a conversation. The man may have believed that a "good conversation" is one with interesting, factual content, while the woman may have believed a good conversation to be one with personal content which discloses people's own feelings and beliefs.

7.  When I look at someone (an angel) from a position of unrequited love and imagine the pleasures that being in heaven with the person might bring us, we are prone to overlook a significant danger; how soon his or her attractions might pale if he or she began to love us back. We fall in love because we long to escape from ourselves with someone as ideal as we are corrupt. But what if such a being were one day to turn around and love us back? We can only be shocked. How could they be as divine as we had hoped when they have the base taste to approve of someone like us? If in order to love, we must believe that the beloved surpasses us in some way, does not a cruel paradox emerge when we witness this love returned? `If she/he is so wonderful, how could she/he love someone like me?"

8.  Empiricists, like ants, merely collect things and use them. The Rationalists, like spiders, spin webs out of themselves. The  middle way is that of the bee, which gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but then transforms and digests it by a power of its own. And the true business of philosophy is much the same, for it does not rely only or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it store the material supplied by natural history and practical experiments untouched in its memory, but lays it up in the understanding changed and refined. Thus from a closer and purer alliance of the two faculties, the experimental and the rational-such as has never yet been made-we have a good reason for hope.


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