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작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 91회 작성일 11-05-05 10:21

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[Zoom In]  No matter how good your product is, remember that perfection of an existing product is not necessarily the best investment one can make. For example, the Eri Canal, which took four years to build, was regarded as the height of efficiency in its day. What its builders had not considered was that the advent of the railroad would assure the canal's instant downfall. By the time the canal was finished, the railroad had been established as the fittest technology for transportation. Likewise, when the fuel cell becomes the automotive engine of choice, the car companies focusing on increasing the efficiency of the internal combustion engine may find themselves left behind. Is it time to keep making what you are making? Or is it time to create a new niche? Innovation requires noticing signals outside the company itself: signals in the community, the environment, and the world at large.

1.  Among many fish species, the sex of other members of the group in which an individual fish lives-its social environment-determines its sex. For example clownfish begin life as males. They live in social groups of five or so individuals living within a single sea anemone. The group's leader is the largest fish in the group-and is also its only female. If the female is removed from the group, the largest male changes sex and becomes a female. Cleaner wrasse, On the other hand, first mature as females. The largest female in a group eventually changes sex to become a male. A female wrasse changes sexes if the dominant male is removed. Within a few hours, the former female adopts male behavior, and within 10 days this new male produces sperm.

2.  A compelling reason for an international language is the frequency and gravity of misunderstandings owing to difficulties of translation. For instance, the 1905 draft of a treaty between Russia and Japan, written in both French and English, treated the English control and French controler as synonyms. In fact, the English form means "to dominate or hold power" while the French means simply "to inspect." The treaty nearly fell apart as a result. Similarly, the Japanese involvement in World War 2 may have been unintentionally prolonged when the Domei news agency, the official Japanese government information service, translated the word mokusatsu as "to ignore" when the sense intended was that of "to reserve a reply until we have had time to consider the matter more clearly."

3.  Many baby birds are fed in the nest by their parents. They all gape and scream, and the parent drops a worm in the open mouth of one of them. The loudness with which each baby screams is proportional to how hungry he is. Therefore, if the parent always gives the food to the loudest screamer, they should all get their fair share, since when one has had enough he will not scream so loudly. But we must expect that individuals will cheat, will tell lies about how hungry they are. This will escalate, apparently rather pointlessly because if they are all lying by screaming too loudly, this level of loudness will become the norm. However, it cannot de-escalate, because any individual who decreases the loudness of his scream will be fed less.

4.  Artistic expression is as basic to human beings as talking and is by no means limited to a special category of people called "artists." For example, all human beings adorn their bodies in certain ways and by doing so make a statement about who they are, both as individuals and as members of society. Similarly, people of all cultures tell stories in which they express their values, hopes, and concerns, and in the process reveal much about themselves and the nature of the world as they see it. In short, all people engage in artistic expression. And, they have been doing this in countless ways for at least 40,000 years-from fashioning and playing bone flutes, to painting animals on ancient rock walls, to digital music jamming on iPhones.

5.  In North America, extended families can be found along the Maine coast, where they developed in response to a unique economy featuring a mix of farming and seafaring. Because family farms were incapable of providing self-sufficiency, seafaring was taken up as an economic alternative. Seagoing commerce, however, was periodically afflicted by depression, so family farming remained important as a cushion against hard economic times. The need for a sufficient labor pool to tend the farm was satisfied by the practice of a newly married couple settling on the farm of either the bride's or the groom's parents. Thus, most people spent their lives cooperating on a day-to-day basis in economic activities with close relatives, all of whom lived together(even if in separate houses) on the same farm.

6.  Sign language involves facial expressions, hand movements, and body position. It is full of ideas and concepts we can hardly express in oral language and requires a quickness of eye few of un develop. For example the sign for "little" is made by holding the tips of the thumb and index finger apart with the rest of the fist closed. If the tips of the thumb and index finger are about an inch apart, that indicates something is small but not minute. As the tips of the fingers move close together, the concept of small gradually transforms itself into other degrees of smallness such as tiny, minute, microscopic. Not only that, the hand can move so fast that ideas can follow each other with a speed that is not possible with words. Moreover, with two hands moving two ideas can be expressed simultaneously.

7.  A study of household waste of Tucson residents produced meaningful information about social issues. For example, when surveyed by questionnaires, only 15 percent of households reported consuming beer, and no household reported consuming more than eight cans a week. Analysis of garbage from the same area showed that some beer was consumed in over 80 percent of the households, and 50 percent of house holds discarded more than eight cans per week. In addition to providing actual data on beer consumption, the study tested the validity of research survey techniques, upon which social scientists rely heavily. The tests show a significant difference between what people say they do and what they actually do. Therefore, ideas about human behavior based on simple survey techniques may be seriously in error.

8.  Flowering plants can be classified according to the way their flowering responds to day length. Strawberries, potatoes, dahlias, and soybeans are classified as "short-day" plants because they flower only if the day length is shorter than a critical period(that is, when the night length is longer than a critical period). In contrast, lettuce, spinach, radishes, and irises are "long-day" plants because they flower in spring or early summer, when the light period is longer than a critical length. Ornamental plant growers use these facts. They manipulate day length to produce flowers for market during seasons when they are not naturally available. For example chrysanthemums are short-day plants that usually flower in fall, but growers use light-blocking shades to mimic short days in order to produce these flowers at any season.

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