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작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 254회 작성일 11-05-05 10:21

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[Zoo In]  We anticipate the future as if we found it too slow in coming and we were trying to hurry it up. So imprudent are we that we wander about in times that are not ours and do not think of the one that belongs to us. We try to support the present with the future and think of arranging things we cannot control, for a time we have no certainty of reaching. Examine your thoughts, and you will find them wholly occupied with the past or the future. We almost never think of the present, and if we do so, it is only to shed light on our plans for the future. The past and the present are our means; only the future is our end.

1.  Humor columnist Erma Bombeck observed, "It takes a lot of courage to show your dreams to someone else." It takes confidence to talk about a dream and even more to pursue it. And sometimes confidence separates the people who dream and pursue those dreams from those who don't. In her research at the University of Wisconsin, Karen Greno-Malsch discovered that self-confidence is vital to success. In a study of children, she found that lower self-worth translated into 37 percent less willingness to negotiate and use of 11 percent fewer negotiation strategies with others. She also discovered that the greater a child's self-worth, the greater the willingness to incur the risks of prolonged negotiation and the greater the adaptability. In other words, the more confidence you have in yourself, the less likely you are to give up trying to get what you want.

2.  In his book Man's Search for Meaning, Viktor Frankl talks about how victims of the Holocaust were able to find meaning in their lives. Despite the physical and emotional torture that these people endured in the concentration camps, some of them found meaning, a sense of purpose, in their meager existence. Their purpose could have been to reunite with loved ones or to someday write about what they had lived through. However, even to suggest that these people were happy while in the camp is absurd. In order to be happy, having meaning in our lives is not enough. We need the experience of meaning and the experience of positive emotions; we need present and future benefit.

3.  People who worry about money all the time always have money problems. People who think and talk negatively about other people always seem to have problems in their relationships. People who complain about their companies or their jobs are surprised to find that they are always having problems at work. By the Law of Attraction, you get more of whatever you think and talk about most of the time. When you worry, you attract into your life more of those things that you are worrying about. You must be careful to think about, talk about, and imagine only the things that you want. You must refuse to dwell upon the things that you don't want. You must do everything possible to assure that these mental principles and laws are working for you and not against you.

4.  Born in China, Xuehua "Sherwood" Hu began his directing career at the New York Public Theater. His latest project has a foot in both worlds. The Prince of the Himalayas sets Shakespeare's Hamlet in ancient Tibet. He filmed the all-Tibetan cast high in the Himalayas. "One can image how the crew worked in this sort of condition," he says. "I loved every minute of it. We knew that we were doing something meaningful and magnificent." He fulfilled his father's wish to direct Hamlet before he died. "I was excited to have Hamlet ask his own destiny- Where am I coming from? Where am I going? To be or not to be? - at the top of a Himalayan mountain, so close to the universe that you could almost touch the sun if you extended your arms," he says. "I wanted to make a Tibetan Hamlet about love, not about revenge."

5.  Earth is surrounded by a life-giving gaseous envelope called the atmosphere. This thin blanket of air is an integral part of the planet. It provides the air that we breathe and protects us from the sun's intense heat and dangerous radiation. The energy exchanges that continually occur between the atmosphere and space produce the effects we call weather. If, like the moon, Earth had no atmosphere, our planet would be lifeless, and many of the processes and interactions that make the surface such a dynamic place could not operate. Without weathering and erosion, the face of our planet might more closely resemble the lunar surface, which has not changed much in nearly three billion years.

6.  We tend to miss a lot of opportunities to think about things, to make changes, and to make things better. We often continue down the path we are on regardless of whether we find it rewarding or even acceptable. It's as if our lives are just a series of school days, one after the other, in which we show up where we are told and do what we think we are supposed to. We know someday there will be a graduation, when we will do something different, but until then we continue without question. Don't wait for the moment that shakes you out of your routine to examine what you are doing. Work on making your personal life as fulfilling as you want right now. Don't wait to start moving in the right direction.

7.  Abraham Maslow proposed that every human being behaves in ways that are designed to satisfy certain needs. Further, there exist levels of needs, and the high-level needs do not emerge until the low-level needs are satisfied. Until hunger and thirst are satisfied, you will not be concerned with safety. In fact, if you need food badly, you might even chase a lion away from a felled prey. Until you feel safe and secure, you will not be concerned with others loving you. Until  you are loved, you will not be concerned about whether others respect you. And until you are respected by others, you will not care about your potential for achieving your life goals. In our society, most of these needs are met to some degree. However, the degree to which they are met varies and consequently our behavior varies.

8.  The law of conservation of mass states that mass can be neither created nor destroyed. This notion of mass balance means that if there is an increase in the amount of chemical present in a given environment such as a lake, this cannot be due to some sort of 'magical' process of formation. Instead, it is the result of the chemical having been either transported into the lake from elsewhere or produced by a chemical or biological reaction from other compounds which have already existed in the lake. Similarly, if these reactions were responsible for the mass increase of this particular chemical, they must have caused a corresponding decrease in the mass of one or more other compounds.

9.  While in Kyoto, Japan as a visiting professor, I experienced some cultural differences. When I ordered green tea with sugar at a restaurant, a waiter politely explained that one does not drink green tea with sugar. I responded that I was aware of this custom but I liked my tea sweet. I added that I would like to put some sugar in my green tea. Thus frustrated, the waiter took up the issue with the manager, and the two of them began a lengthy conversation. Finally, the manager came over to me and said, "I am very sorry. We do not l have sugar." Since I couldn't have the green tea as I liked it, I changed my order to a cup of coffee, which the waiter soon brought over. Resting on the saucer were two packets of sugar. Unlike the American perspective, the Japanese put their custom before the preferences of the customers.

10. In 1854, Florence Nightingale tried to demonstrate how many soldiers were dying of diseases stemming from poor hygiene, rather than dying from their wounds. It was her mathematical ability, however, that led to the dramatic shift in perception for which she became famous. In a letter to Queen Victoria, Nightingale used a novel form of data presentation, a polar diagram, similar to a pie chart. This might have been the first practical use of this form of chart that led to a wholesale change in the way that patients were cared for. This graph also illustrated that presenting information in a new visual configuration was an effective way to change one's perception of cause and effect. Nightingale learned to see medical care differently through her experience and, in turn, was able to teach others to see the way she did by conveying her ideas in a visual form.

11. How do we read? The eye is the gateway, the first connection between man and word. Yet sound is the foundation of reading, as is fitting for a species that developed complex oral communications long before writing was born. A child must be able to understand the sounds of language, from syllables all the way down to phonemes, the smallest units of sounds in speech, before she can read. This skill is so crucial that a low capacity to discriminate phonemes in infants links to later difficulties in learning to read. Dyslexics, in essence, suffer from a kind of cognitive "deafness," in that they are not as sensitive to letter sounds within words as skilled readers are. We really do have a voice in our head that brings the written word to life, making music with the silent text.

12.  Who hasn't been tempted to slip the overly complicated word into a report or letter to make themselves sound especially intelligent? According to a study conducted by Daniel Oppenheimer, however, an unnecessary  love of the complex word may have the opposite effect. Oppenheimer systematically examined the complexity of the vocabulary used in various passages such as job application and academic essays. He then asked people to read the samples and rate the intelligence of the person who allegedly wrote them. The simpler language resulted in significantly higher ratings of intelligence, showing that unnecessary use of complex language sent out a bad impression. This study suggests that you can increase how bright people think you are simply by simplifying your language.

13. Not so long ago, child-care specialists might have recommended that babies be kept in clean and neat environments and visitors be silent in their midst. While the scientific literature would not advocate that we take babies to rock concerts or mow lawns with them on our backs, we know that even the youngest of babies benefit from both visual and auditory stimulation. Formerly white nurseries have been replaced by colorful rooms alive with patterns and music boxes. Parents and caregivers are told to chat with infants and to touch and cuddle them so that they get sufficient tactile stimulation. This move toward more stimulating environments provides babies with the material they need to make sense of their world. With this natural stimulation babies thrive.

14. Sometimes people are vague in their communications, hoping to make a point through vague and veiled wording. This way, they cannot be accused of having deliberately suggested wrongdoing. Ethics author Nan DeMars, writing in You Want Me To Do What?, suggests this for ambiguous situations: Restate your understanding of what you're being asked to do, to make certain that you heard what you think you heard. If the expressed request borders on the illegal or immoral, ask the person who made the request to put it in writing and to sign the written request. If he or she refused to do so, make a note of the incident and keep it on file. If it's truly a shockingly bad request, request a meeting with a higher authority.

15. Smith Company is a small manufacturer and distributor of plastic bottles. Nearly 80 percent of their customers are located within a 200-mile marketing area. Smith provides a high service level to their market area by offering competitive pricing and fast delivery. Smith customers have learned that they don't need to carry a large inventory of bottles because they can place "just in time" orders and receive fast delivery. This procedure saves the customer the cost of maintaining a large inventory. Because of the high number of small orders, Smith knows the "just in time" approach is a more expensive method of doing business. The system, however, has helped lock in their customers. Other bottle manufacturers and distributors are unwilling to provide the service Smith does for small orders.

16. Commercial aluminum is lighter and stronger than steel, but it's five times as expensive, so it hasn't been used much in auto manufacturing. Yet carmakers are now turning to aluminum to meet fuel-efficiency and recycling standards. Between the 1970s and 2009, aluminum content in American cars increased from about 2 percent to nearly 9 percent of average vehicle weight. The metal is mostly used for specific parts, but some high-end carmakers produce aluminum bodies because of the speed and fuel-efficiency associated with the lightweight metal. In the near future, however, aluminum isn't going to have much of an effect: Experts estimate that by 2020 it will still make up only 11 percent of average vehicle weight.

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