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작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 149회 작성일 11-01-09 18:20

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1강 주제 추론

줌인 Imagine that you are in a meeting. Your party and the o속 party are sitting across a table. You ask a question on a particular subject and the answer is unsatisfactory. What would be the best response? It is none at all. So if you are seeking more information or a different kind of information, ask for it by remaining silent. When there is a long pause in the conversation, people feel an overwhelming need to fill it. If someone has finished speaking and you do not play along by taking up your end of the dialog, that person will automatically start to elaborate. Eventually, they may say what you want to hear.

1. When Nelson Mandela was in prison, one of the first subjects he undertook was Afrikaans, the language of his enemy. It was surprising, even shocking, to many of his comrades, but he studied the language intensively and asked his comrades to do the same. Mandela then proceeded to focus on the history of the Afrikaner people, his persecutors, and the tragedy of the Boer War, acquiring a profound understanding of their group psychology and culture. In the process, he developed a deep respect for the Afrikaners - for their spirit of independence, their religious devotion, and their courage in battle. This comprehension of the other side proved enormously helpful later when it came to persuading the government to accept his forthright "no" to the cruel and unjust system of apartheid.


2. Many pharmaceutical companies promote their toothpaste, highlighting the bad-breath-fighting qualities. Although they seem to be right, brushing can`t completely remove the cause of the mouth stink. Bad breath can have several causes, such as trapped food debris in the mouth, rotting teeth, and infections of the lungs or the spaces in the bone behind the nose. Usually, however, bad breath is caused by the aromatic foods we eat, such as onions or garlic. Oils from these foods, when digested, can enter the bloodstream and be transported to the lungs, where the odor is exhaled with our breathing. This is how you can have onion rings for lunch, brush your teeth before bed, and still be told by your spouse that you have offensive breath.

3. Your kid can apply to colleges without visiting them, but doing so isn‘t desirable. All have very different cultures - even if their prestige is the same or comparable. Brochures about colleges, don`t communicate these differences clearly. You have to walk the campus to get a sense of the place. Some families wait until the kid has been accepted into the college before traveling to see the school, as a means of saving money and not investing emotional energy into a college that doesn’t accept the child. While the strategy may sound sensible, it`s far better to visit the college before applying - to see if it`s worth applying to and to know better how to apply intelligently. If your child likes the college, the child should mention the visit in his or her application essays, and this will add more weight to the application.

4. When you must use an ATM, choose one that is in a brightly lit high-traffic location. The safest choice is a machine inside a busy supermarket. The next best is a drive-up ATM, which is safer than walk-up machines. Shift the car into while you make your transaction, but do keep the motor running. Avoid ATMs that seem to be positioned in remote locations, such as behind buildings, pillars, or walls, generally screened from full public view. Most victims report having been completely unaware of the robber`s presence. Whether in your car or on foot, look around before you approach the ATM. Identify any hiding spots, and take note of lurkers. ATM robbers often like watch machines located near freeway on-ramps, so that they can make a fast getaway.

5. The fruit plants in your garden will be productive over a longer period than vegetables. Most of the vegetables are annuals, and the plant is discarded after harvest. However, many fruit plants take a few years to come into production, but will then continue to produce fruit for several seasons. Growing your own fruit frees you from having to rely on the small sort of relatively inferior fruit available in the shops. Commercial growers put flavor fairly low on their list of priorities, preferring to choose kinds that produce fruit which looks good, travels well, and has a long shelf life. Gardeners have a much wider choice, and the fruits you grow in your own garden will often be far superior to any of the commercial ones.

6. When London introduced a congestion-charging zone in early 2003(charging five pounds per day to drive into the city center), people responded far more quickly than critics had expected. After a year, car journeys fell by nearly a third. Trips that were exempt from the chare became more popular: there were fifteen percent more bus journeys, twenty percent more motorcycle journeys, and thirty percent more trips by bicycle. Drivers who no longer enter the charging zone have chosen various responses: one quarter drive around it, fifty-five percent have switched to public transportation, and twenty percent use alternatives like bicycles. While the number of trips by car fell, the total delays caused by congestion fell by much more, which suggests that the congestion charge allowed the streets to be much more efficiently used.


2강 제목 추론

줌인 The age of 3 1/2 is not without its charm. One of the more amusing aspects of this age is the child`s often vivid imagination, expressed most strikingly in his enjoyment of imaginary companions. Though some people have felt that only the lonely play with imaginary playmates, our research makes it very evident that it is often the highly superior and imaginative child who invents these creatures. They are very real to him, very important, and, we can assure you quite harmless. Even though it may be annoying to have to lay a place at dinner or keep an extra seat in the family automobile for his `friend` who exists only in your child`s imagination, it is probably well worthwhile.

1. Traditional organizations are like ships, steadily moving in one direction and allowing inertia to keep them on the same path. Sometimes tradition can actually be one of the easiest barriers to address, depending on your organization, because it is usually followed for only one or two reasons. The first is nostalgia, and the second is because of a mistaken belief that the way business is currently being conducted is the best way since it has always worked before. If it is nostalgia you are dealing with, honest assessment of why this should not be a barrier and a recommendation for change is really all you can do. The second reason for tradition is easier to combat because you can use a logical argument against things always having been done a certain way.

2. A woman who had been receiving treatment for cancer at a clinic on a regular basis began to procrastinate about going in for periodic examinations and care. When her family asked why she had not gone in on schedule, she replied, "They gave me a new doctor, and he`s not very nice. He treats me like a number, and I feel uncomfortable talking to him - he talks down to me when I ask him questions." Many patients have stories about negative experiences with doctors, and these experiences can lead people to delay or stop getting the medical attention they need. These stories often involve the doctor`s hurried manner, insensitivity, lack of responsiveness, failure to explain the medical problem or the treatment, or unwillingness to involve the client in planning the treatment.

3. Aggression is considered a social problem primarily because it causes
harm to others. But psychologists have also warned that the aggressive child, by failing to acquire appropriate social skills, runs the risk of being rejected by the peer group and becoming an outcast. Aggressive children often have poor interpersonal skills, and aggression runs high among unpopular, rejected children. But does this mean that highly aggressive children never have friends? Or that they are never members of stable social groups? These questions were addressed in a large-scale study of the social patterns of aggressive children. The result proved somewhat surprising. In the social clusters, aggressive subjects were just as likely to be members as non-aggressive subjects. Children high in aggression often tended to hang around together, forming their own clusters.

4. The movies have reinforced the concept that all Indians constituted a single type with a common lifestyle. The mounted, war-bonneted warrior of the plains has too often been considered the archetype of the "Red Man." Yet early Europeans themselves. Two hundred distinct North American languages have been classified, and numerous physical differences in the continent`s inhabitants have been identified. The indigenous societies of North America presented a wide spectrum of variation: from small bands of hunter-gathers and farmers to well-organized states. A similar diversity was found in their arts and crafts. They survived by hunting and fishing until knowledge of food-raising migrated north from Mexico and Central America, resulting in more stable settlements in which men cleared the fields and women tended the crops.

5. Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and even eradicating infectious diseases. An immunization campaign carried out by the World Health Organization(WHO) from 1967 to 1977 resulted in the eradication of smallpox When the program began, the disease still threatened 60 percent of the world`s population and killed every fourth victim. Eradication of poliomyelitis is now within reach. Since the launch by WHO and its partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, infections have fallen by 99 percent, and some five million people have escaped paralysis. Between 2000 and 2007, measles deaths dropped worldwide by over 74 percent, and some regions have set a target of eliminating the disease. Maternal and neonatal tetanus has been eliminated in 12 of the 58 high-risk countries.

6. Becoming hypnotized begins when the people who will be hypnotized find a comfortable body position and become thoroughly relaxed. Without letting their minds wander to other matters, they focus their attention on a specific object or sound, such as a metronome or the hypnotist`s voice, Then, based on both what the hypnotist expects to occur and actually sees occurring, she or he tells the clients how they will feel as the hypnotic process continues. For instance, the hypnotist may say, "You are feeling completely relaxed" or "Your eyelids are becoming heavy." When people being hypnotized recognize that their feelings match the hypnotist`s comments, they are likely to believe that some change is taking place. That belief seems to increase their openness to other statements made by the hypnotist.


3강 글의 주장


줌인 How can you create closeness when the two of you are hundreds of miles apart? How can you make the person you are talking to on the phone feel special when you cannot pat their back or give them a little hug? The answer is simple. Just use your caller's name far more often than you would in person. In fact, shower your conversations with his or her name. Saying a persons name too often in face-to-face conversation sounds manipulative. However, on the phone the effect is dramatically different. If you heard someone say your name, even if you were being pushed around in a big noisy crowd, you would pay attention and listen.

1. It is particularly difficult to fire people who are not actually screwing up and may in fact be doing quite well. But in many organizations there is a core of people who absolutely will not accept change. Either their personalities just can't take it, or they are so entrenched in the way things are, they cannot see a way to make things better. These people usually have to go. Maybe that sounds harsh, but you are doing no one a favor by keeping resisters in your organization. They foster an underground resistance and lower the morale of the people who support change. They wast their own time at a company where they don't share the vision, and they sould be encouraged to find one where they do.

2. Asthma rates in kids are on the rise. Surprisingly, some experts say it may have to do with our sterile lifestyle and overuse of antibiotics. Exposure to bugs puts the immune system into fighting mode - and that's a good thing. Kids with the H.pylori bacterium are half as likely to have asthma as those who don't, according to recent research. Since the invention of antibiotics, this bacterium has been on the decline. The discovery could lead to the development of a preventive treatment. Until then, replace antibacterial soaps and cleaning products with normal ones. And when possible, avoid giving your child antibiotics.

3. As you know, being successful is not easy. You won't necessarily succeed at everything the first time you try. That's OK. Some of the most successful people in the world are the ones who've had the most failures. J. K. Rowling's first Harry Potter book was rejected twelve times before it was finally published. Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team, and he lost hundreds of games and missed thousands of shots during his career. But the once he said, "I have failed over and over again in my life. And that's why I succeed." These people succeeded because they understand that you can't let your failure define you. You have to let them teach you. You have to let them show you what to do differently next time.

4. It is true that you have busy schedules and may have trouble completing your assignments on time. You may argue that because of your situation, you sometimes have no choice but to buy essays off the Internet. However, buying essays off the Internet should never be the solution. Instead, you might try to negotiate the deadline with your instructor. While writing may be a struggle for you because you feel that your writing is not good enough to receive an A, it is crucial that you do your own work. You may go to a writing center for help. If you plagiarize, you will not develop your own writing and critical thinking skills. As a result, you may not be prepared to pass your final exams.

5. States that previously lowered the drinking age to 18, such as Massachusetts, Michigan, and Maine, experienced an increase in alcohol-related crashes among the 18 to 20 age group. Lowering drinking ages to 16, 17, or 18 like the MLDA (Minimum Legal Drinking Ages) in some European countries is inappropriate for US standards because American teens generally start driving at earlier ages and drive more often than their European counterparts. American teens are thus much more likely to drive under the influence of alcohol if the drinking age is lowered in the US. Moreover, the earlier a person begins alcohol use, the greater the chances are of that person becoming an alcoholic later in life and suffering negative physical withdrawal symptoms.

6. More and more parents believe that their children don't have to participate in physical activity if they don't want to. However, physical education(PE) is an important part of holistic schooling. It is about educating the whole person, a holistic education that betters us in an all-round sense, rather than a merely academic experience. Some aspects of physical education are vital for future well-being, for example, being able to swim and learning to lift heavy weights safely. Arguments about cost seem petty when compared to this aim and also misguided, since PE departments would continue to exist to serve those that chose to study PE voluntarily, even if the subject were no longer compulsory. I believe that PE is a crucial element of all-round schooling and our society's well-being.



4강 글의 요지


줌인 Although a speech can be effective, all the words in the world cannot measure up to the example of a leader, especially in communicating new behaviors and values. There is often no more effective way to help people understand the message than to have it modeled for them by the manager. Words can yield a variety of interpretations in terms of the kind of behaviors people think they mean. But a manager`s actions provide a clear model of exactly the kind of behavior required. Managers who want people to take a more team-based approach with their people, for example, will almost certainly get better results by taking a more team-based approach themselves rather than just by making a speech on teamwork.

1. When children are older and become teenagers, they usually feel a need to start being independent. This often means rebelling against their parents. For example, they often want to stay out later than the time set by their parents. In an attempt to persuade their parents to extend the curfew, they often claim that their friends are allowed to stay out later. Some parents may be concerned in case they are being too strict and unkind to their children, and they may relax their rules. However, they should stick to their guns and consider the safety of their children. If children are to be brought up properly, their parents must be careful not to be too indulgent towards them. They have to treat them in what could appear to be an unkind manner.

2. Time pressure leads to frustration, and when we`re frustrated or experience other negative emotions, our thinking becomes more constricted, narrower and less broad and creative. However, people are unaware of this phenomenon and live under the illusion that when they are experiencing time pressure they are also more creative. This explains why time pressure is pervasive and to some extent accounts for the increase in rates of depression. We are generally too busy trying to squeeze more and more activities into less and less time. Consequently, we fail to savor, to enjoy, potential sources of happiness that may be all around us - whether it is our work, a class, a piece of music, the landscape, our soul mate, or even our children. To enjoy the richness that life has to offer, we need to take our time.

3. Many young people feel overwhelmed at the beginning of their careers, But, you have to come to terms with the fact that most careers are not launched by a grand decision about where you want to end up. They are rarely linear and take many unexpected twists and turns. Hard work and talent matter, and luck will play a role, too. The key for you at this point is just to start. Learn about growing companies, emerging market trends, influential people, and new cultural phenomena. Go to interviews. Take a job. Remember, it doe'·t have to be THE job. The job that calls you - the career you were meat for - will come. And it will be part of a life journey that you will follow one step at a time.

4. Nothing gives scientists more pleasure than holding to an unconventional idea in the face of opposition. Scientists are always constructing a straw-man "establishment" opponent whom they can then fearlessly demolish. If you combine that with resisting the conventional wisdom of non-scientists, you have a recipe for a distinctive kind of scientific self-righteousness. Of course, it is certainly true that there is no reason that scientifically valid results should have morally comforting consequences - but there`s no reason why they shouldn't, either. More to the point, when scientists do have ideas that are potentially morally dangerous, they should approach those ideas with hesitancy and humility. Truth and morality may indeed in some cases be competing values, but that is a tragedy. It should not be a case for self-congratulation.

5. For every really creative thinker, there are dozens of less talented critics. It is often easier to live by destroying other people`s ideas than by generating many of one`s own. The "frogs in a well" syndrome, where humans, like frogs, pull down any frog escaping from the well - the misery of all is better than the escape of a few - is widespread. It is combined with the growing ethic of "limited good," where it comes to be believed that another`s success pulls one down, while another`s failure pushes one up. These insidious pressures work against the increase of knowledge. Many have experienced this in schools where peer pressure will soon create an anti-work, anti-achievement ethic where a "swot" is picked on.

6. A study in Britain found that people who are physically active may not only feel younger than those with sedentary lifestyles, they may actually be younger, genetically speaking. The researchers used the length of white-blood-cell telomeres - repeated DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, which progressively shorten over time - to assess biological age. They found subjects who were less active had shorter telomeres than those who were more active. The most active subjects had telomeres the same length as inactive individuals up to ten years younger. Although more research is needed, the researchers say that their findings provide "a powerful message that could be used to promote the potential anti-aging effect of regular exercise."


5강 글의 목적

줌인 Upon receiving your last letter, I rushed to look up the word 'flattering' in the dictionary. I was shocked to find out that it could imply something negative, which I certainly did not mean. I should have used some word like 'complimentary' instead. For that, I would like to ask for the kindness in your heart to forgive my unintended offense. If you knew me well, you would know that I am shameless enough to take all compliments at their face value and no to think that they might be mere flattery. I just did not know what the word really implied. I hope that you no longer feel hurt or uncomfortable in any way as a result of our correspondence.

1. O'ahu waters claim many lives. Often tragedy occurs because people don't understand that the ocean is not a swimming pool. It's a vast body of water prone to unpredictable currents. So follow these basic rules: Swim at life-guarded beaches. Many beaches are unguarded. Stay off wet sand rocks. Strong currents near the shore are the most frequent and dangerous hazards. Watch the ocean at least 20 minutes before entering. Telltale signs of hazardous conditions are water moving by rapidly, constant swirling in seemingly calm water and waves breaking far offshore. Waves come in sets. The ocean can look calm for up to twenty minutes between dangerous sets of huge waves. Do not fight a rip current. If caught in a current, keep calm, float, breathe, don't panic, and wave for help.

2. Think men aren't into fashion? Consider the leisure suit and football jerseys as menswear. "Just by nature of dressing in the morning, men have fashion," argues Andrew Reilly, an assistant professor of apparel and product design. "What they choose to wear tells us who they are, their values, and their opinions." Finding few texts to address the topic, Reilly created his own. The Men's Fashion Reader is a compilation of essays by experts that address menswear from historical, cultural and political perspectives. Reilly's contribution investigated whether men's suits, like women's fashion, undergo cycles, changing incrementally until hitting an extreme and changing direction. Looking at lapels, collars, cuffs, waistlines, pockets and other factors, Reilly determined that menswear is also, although less consistently, cyclical.

3. Maybe you know where you are headed but don't know precisely what gear and clothing you will need. We have all been there. Our customer service representatives are all experience travelers who can advise you on the outfits you will need - whether you're off to the Andes or the Appalachians. Our representatives can provide advice on the types of shoes and boots you will need to hike the canyons of Utah or the wilderness around Lake Superior. They will answer your questions and point you to the right source for the items you need if we don't offer them. Pick up the phone and ask one of our representatives While you're conversing, don't forget to place your order. They will keep you and your gear comfortable and on track, whatever your destination.

4. Remember what it was like to report on a daily deadline
for the first time? Or to interview a city official for the first time? Or to begin to maneuver a desktop publishing program? We know that the journalism program at our college was a source of many of these firsts for you. We're still providing these important first experiences to budding young writers and editors. And we're hoping you'll be willing to help these students make it through the program. As you know, the costs of providing top-notch education just keep going up. We've done everything we can to contain costs without compromising quality. One of those things is to set up a scholarship fund for students with special financial needs. And we hope you would contribute generously to our fund. You'll get a great feeling knowing you're helping support the formation of future leaders in the profession.

5. In order to conserve landfill space, all garbage collected in Jefferson County since July of 2009 has been required to be taken to the new recovery faciltyu in Denver, so the county agreed to subsidize haulers until April 30 of this year. So, as of May 1 of this year, your garbage hauling fee will be increased by &1.90 per month. Although other haulers may be raising the householder's portion of the bill more than &1.90, we are going to try to keep the price increase as low as possible, However, there may be more increases because the current legislature is considering putting a sales tax on hauling fees. There are several ways you can lower your garbage bills. Enclosed are flyers with information on volume-based garbage haulers, recycling, and free composting facilities at the county.

6. Recently, a bill was introduced that classifies a number of popular nutritional supplements, a few of which I take for my health as controlled substances. As I depend on these products to maintain my health, I am gravely concerned about the consequences of this bill. The bill represents disregard for the meaning and purpose of the controlled substance act, which was designed to protect the public from illegal drugs, not from vitamins, herbs, and minerals whose use goes back to ancient times. As an advocate of alternative medicine, I insist the bill should not be passed. If the government believes nutritional supplements are unsafe, and wishes to restrict their use, the government should produce evidence that these supplements are a risk to public health and safety.

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