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작성자 허종 댓글 0건 조회 243회 작성일 08-04-18 13:19

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Several centuries ago, men were responsible for providing food, either by hunting or by farming, and shelter, perhaps by building it themselves. But women, too, were expected to be providers. They provided food, in such activities as growing a garden, milling flour, and cooking. They were responsible for other kinds of providing as well, such as producing clothing by spinning, weaving, and sewing it. In short, men and women shared the provider`s role. In an agricultural society, they shared time and space as well. Then came the Industrial Revolution.


Nevertheless, for most people, milk`s health benefits still outweigh any possible risks. for one thing, milk is a convenient source of calcium, People of all ages need calcium to build and maintain bone mass. Also, milk contains several essential nutrients, such as vitamin D, potassium, and magnesium. studies show that a diet that includes fruits, vegetables, and dairy products--including milk--can even help lower blood pressure. Furthermore, some research indicates that milk may lower the risk of colon cancer. According to the National Academy of Sciences, children and adults should drink 24 oz. of milk each day. Teens should drink even more--at least 32oz. of milk a day.


Thomas Jefferson was the first president to take the oath of office in Washington, D.C, After his inauguration, he moved into the presidential palace, which contained offices for the President and some of his staff. It also included dining and reception rooms. However, President Jefferson did not give many formal parties. This was partly because there was no First Lady. But it was also because Jefferson liked to live in a simple fashion. Once, he showed up for an important meeting wearing old clothes and slippers! Neither Washington nor Adams would ever have dressed so casually. Jefferson was different from them in other ways, too. He disagreed with them about how the country should be run, and about what part a President should play.


We have to ask ourselves a question. What kind of world will our children have to live in? Will they have air to breathe and food to eat? These are among the basic questions that were addressed at the first world meeting on the environment, attended by more than 100 world leaders and 30,000 other scientists, newspeople, and citizens concerned. These complex problems can no longer be solved by individual countries; nations of the world must act together if we are to develop answer that will give a safe and healthy world to our children. will world leaders have the vision to make the necessary changes in the laws that protect the environment? The answer is not certain, but there is hope.


Another factor cited by doctors is malpractice. Increasingly large awards for malpractice have caused doctors to increase their rates to cover the higher malpractice insurance premiums. Because of the large malpractice awards, doctors are also prescribing more conservative and more extensive-and therefore more costly-treatment for patients as a defense against malpractice claims. Whatever the causes of the wild increases in the cost of medical care are, steps need to be taken to reverse this trend, or the average people will not be able to afford medical care. The government needs to take strong action before it is too late.


The chart on the left shows the national income per capita in four countries in 2002 and 2005. Of these four countries, Luxemburg ranked first in the years 2002 and 2005. Compared with the United States, the difference was slightly over $12,000 in 2002, but it increased to over $20,000 in 2005. While the national income per head in Canada increased by $3,500 in 2005 from the year 2002, the difference between Canada and Luxemburg increased from nearly $20,000 to $30,000. In 2002, the national income per head in Korea amounted to almost $20,000, but it was as much as $20,000 less than that of Luxemburg. In 2005, the gap between the two countries became a huge one, increasing to over $40,000.


The chart on the left shows the ratio of male and female students who went on to colleges. The ratio has been constantly increasing from 2001 to 2005. Male students who advanced to colleges reached over 80% for the first time in 2003, the gap between male and female students in percentage continued to decrease, and finally it decreased by 2.5%, from 5.5% in 2001 to 3.0% in 2005. The largest gap between years for male students was 5.7% between 2002 and 2003, while for female students it was 5.4% for the same years. It is evident that the change in percentage between the years 2004 and 2005 was the largest for both male and female students.


The above charts indicate the top five items each in export and import in 2002. Of these items, semi-conductors and crude oil ranked first in each sector. In particular, it shows that both semi-conductors and computers are included in the lists of export and import. As a single item, crude oil takes up the largest amount of all, slightly over $19 billion. rough figures tell that for those items, imports exceeded exports by approximately $17 billion. The figures also show that coincidently the amount of automobile export is exactly the same as the total amount of import of the last three of the import items: computers, petroleum goods, and natural gas.


The chart on the left shows leisure activities that teenagers did with their parents. Of these activities, TV watching ranks top, taking up almost one third of 미ㅣ솓 activities. TV watching is followed by eating out, which reaches up to 17%. Also it shows that nearly 14% of the teenagers surveyed spend their leisure hours shopping with their parents, which is higher than the percentage of time spent walking or bathing. Walking and bathing take up the same percentage of time among teenagers` leisure activities, and if the two are combined, their share will be in third place among all the activities. And 'others' total to 16.1%, which is higher than shopping but lower than eating out.


The chart on the left shows female workers` job status, indicating the index of female workers` wages, working hours, change of job, based on male workers` standard index 100. Of these three categories, the indices of female workers` wages and working hours are below 100, while the index of female workers` change of job is much higher than 100. The figures overall show no change for wages, which means that the wage differential between male and female workers did not reduce at all during this period. For working hours, there seems to be little change for five years, which means that female workers are still working more hours than male workers. The chart also show the indices raging from 130 to 140 for change of job, which implies that when 100 male workers change their workplaces, at least 130 female workers change their jobs.


Imagine yourself outside looking up at an airplane high in the sky. You lif tup your hand and see that the plane is smaller than your finger, yet you still know that the plane is large enough to hold hundreds of people. Due to the information in your memory stores, you are still able to perceive the actual size of the air plane. This concept is known as size constancy. However, in spite of the fact that you know images that are far away are actually the same size as when they are closer, your brain can be fooled. An example of this is the moon illusion, in which the moon on the horizon appears lager than the moon higher in the sky. The moon doesn`t actually change size, but its relationship to the horizon can make it seem larger when lower in the sky.


To reach a goal often requires that we modify the original plan, or at least certain components of the plan. A goal is still reachable even though we have some problems along the way. And more likely than not, something will go wrong. For example if you have to get to an important meeting and your car won`t start, you call a taxi or find another way to get there. You wouldn`t work out. for anything you want to attain, there are many ways to get there. When one path becomes blocked, don`t turn back. Instead take a detour, and you may soon find that the going is even better than you could have imagined.


Wouldn`t it be nice if you could simply wave farewell to your clutter guests and watch them vanish? Good-bye, piles of paper! Adios, stacks of videos and books! Unfortunately, letting go of clutter usually isn`t so painless. But it can be less painful Remind yourself that most things are replaceable, but time isn`t. In most cases, once you`ve let go of something you won`t miss it, contrary to the popular belief that "as soon as I get rid of something I`ll need it." If you do end up regretting getting rid of anything, don`t worry-you`ll likely get over it. However, if you often find yourself grieving over the loss of something that was never alive, to begin with, seek counseling.

When a person is in pain, family, friends, and relatives understandably tend to be sympathetic and excuse the sufferer from regular responsibilities. The sufferer goes to bed, avoids physical activity, and focuses on the pain, while waiting for the next dose of painkiller. Unfortunately, focusing on pain tends to increase it, and inactivity can lead to shortened muscles, muscle spasms, and fatigue. Therefore, sympathy and attention may actually prolong the agony. In studies of chronic pain sufferers and their spouses, the spouses` attention to the sufferers` pain has been significantly related to the severity of the pain and to the sufferers` activity level. Therefore, family member and pain sufferers are now encouraged no to reward the pain. Instead, they are encouraged to reward activity, exercise, and wellness.


An X-ray is the most common method of uncovering hidden painting. Long wavelength X-rays are used because they are easily absorbed by paint. The degree of absorption depends on the type of paint. For instance, lead-based paints are more absorbent than those containing cobalt. Photographic film is placed behind a painting, and X-rays are passed through it from the front. When the film is developed, the ghostly outlines of earlier pictures may be seen. In the early 1980s, an art restorer X-rayed Rembrandt`s "Man in Armor." He discovered what appeared to be a white plume blowing in the wrong direction from the top of the helmet. However, on turning the X-ray picture around, the "plum" was seen to be part of an abandoned work by Rembrandt: a lady in a flowering white dress and headdress.


When an airplane takes off, it has a flight plan. However, during the course of the flight, wind, rain, turbulence, air traffic, human error, and other factors keep knocking the plane off course. In fact, a plane is off course about 90 percent of the time. The key is that the pilots keep making small course corrections by reading their instruments and talking the control tower. As a result, a plane reaches its destination. Our journey in life if similar to that of an airplane. If you keep getting knocked off your life plan and feel as though you`re off course 90 percent of the time, what are you going to do? If you just keep coming back to your plan and making small adjustments, you`ll eventually reach your destination.


For years, employees have complained that their bosses are far too bossy. They hand out orders like Halloween candy. They not only tell employees what to do, but also restrict them to only one way of doing it. They give directions down to the tiniest detail when it would be better to allow the employee to work out the details of how the job will be done. After all, the employee is not only closest to the job, but is also the expert on how to do it. Today`s employees are not used to that practice and expect to be involved lin more decisions than their parents ever faced. That`s where the empowerment movement came from. Young employees don`t see themselves as a pair of hands seeking direction. Ultimately, they wat to take on more responsibility.


Parents can leave it to the schools to teach their children to read or count or write their names. But children`s best educational opportunities and future growth depend on the combined effort of parents, teachers, and students. The greatest contribution on the part of the parents could come before the children begin their formal education. If a parent will take the time to introduce the children`s chances to succeed! Imagine the children`s feeling of confidence when they find they are already familiar with many of the things their first grade teacher is presenting to the class. How much better they feel about themselves and about school!


What is happiness? It can be the first taste of ice cream on a hot summer day, or the pleasure felt when you look back over your life and reminisce about the good times. Whatever happiness can be, it is something we all need, but few of us are content with the amount we have. While we try to make ourselves happy in many ways, its elusive nature often leaves our efforts unfulfilled. At the same time, happiness has an odd habit of sneaking up when you least expect it. Though happiness may be the easiest emotion to feel, looking for happiness is a sure way not to find it. A psychiatrist said it best: "Happiness is generated by forces beyond your control.


A factor to remember as we set goals is that we are more likely to meet our goals if we think of them as benefits rather than tasks. An expert suggests that with every goal we ask ourselves "what`s in it for me?" For example, if you wake up every morning and spend 20 minutes trying to figure out what to wear, your goal might be to organize your closet. Rather than just saying that your goal is to have a clean closet, you might instead think in terms of giving yourself 15 extra minutes every morning as a result of a neater closet. Those 15 minutes can then be used to meet another goal such as improving your health, Fifteen minutes a day can be used for exercise or a healthy breakfast.


The Kalenjin tribe lives in a province in the northwest of Kenya. Astonishingly, 12 of the world`s top 20 distance runners are Kalenjin. Their seemingly effortless victories in some marathons have sparked off a passionate debate about genetic advantage in long distance running. Danish sports scientists have studied the Kalenjin runners and compared their style and physique with those of elite Danish runners. They noticed that their heart rate stayed remarkably low even when running as fast as 15 miles per hour over long distances. People from this region also have a good build for running with long, very thin legs. When the muscle fibers of Kalenjin runners were analyzed, they were found capable of converting oxygen into energy much more efficiently than the Danish runners.


I always rushed around on vacations, getting up early in the morning, seeing and doing as many things as possible during the day, returning to my hotel late at night exhausted. Finally realizing that I never had any fun on my vacations, and that they were always stressful, I asked myself what I would do if nobody was looking . The answer was that I`d sleep late, see a few sites at a leisurely pace, and sit on the veranda or beach for at least an hour a day reading a good book or just doing nothing. The role of "enthusiastic vacationer seeing absolutely everything" wasn`t me. I did it because I thought I should, but I was much happier and had more fun when I mixed sightseeing with relaxing.


Frequently, my husband is unable to accompany me on business trips and from time to time I dine in restaurants alone. Each time I enter a restaurant alone and ask for a table, the waiter peers at me and asks, "Just one?" Then, once I am seated, he will usually inquire if I want a magazine. The assumption, of course, is that I have no one to share the moment with and therefore dining alone must be a hardship. What makes me laugh about this is that it is not the lack of company that makes the experience a hardship, but rather the waiter`s attitude. Similarly, most people believe that those traveling through life on their own are living a life of hardship. There is a certain amount of pressure to partner so that you will "fit in" and be able to follow the life path that conventional expectations dictate.


The fear that one`s kids may fall behind is not new. Back in the eighteenth century, Samuel Johnson warned parents no to hesitate: "While you stand deliberating which book your son shall read first, another boy has read both." In today`s competitive society, however, the pressure to stay ahead is more ferocious than ever, leading to what experts call "hyper-parenting," the compulsive drive to perfect ;one`s children To give their offspring a head start, ambitious parents play Mozart to them in the womb and use Baby Webster flash cards to teach them vocabulary before their first birthday. computer camps and motivational seminars now even accept ;kids as young as four.


Carol Graham, an economist at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., found that people`s expectations about the future may have more influence on their sense of happiness than their present conditions do. According to her, people who are living modestly now but expecting to live better in the future are likely to be happier than people who are living well but not expecting any improvements in their living standards. In this regard, living standards have improved so much in the postwar era that further big advances cannot be expected in developed countries. In fact, income growth has almost come to a stop for the middle class in many wealthy countries. However, we are already conditioned to think that there is something wrong if we don`t make more money each year. Thus, it is ironic that hight standards of living have now become a barrier to happiness.


When I was in high school, I went to watch my school`s basketball game one day. I`ll never forget what happened there. While watching the game, I began making fun of one of the players who always sat on the bench. He was a nice guy and had always been good to me, but a lot of other people made fun of him, so I thought I would too. After I had laughed at him for several minutes, I happened to turn around and, to my horror, saw his younger brother sitting right behind me. He had overheard everything. I`ll never forget the look of betrayal written all over his face. Quickly turning back around. I sat quietly for the rest of the game. I felt like a total fool.


My family is composed of a bunch of technical incompetents. I blame the bad gene on my da. Several times I`ve seen that his brain literally shuts down and ceases to function in a "technically challenging" situation like when the lifts up the hood of the car. Being an active person, I decided I wanted to overcome my inherited weakness and so I signed up for an auto mechanics class. Believe it or not, I got an A in that class. But I`m ashamed to admit that I hardly learned a thing. Instead of really paying the price to learn, I did a lot of watching and not a lot of doing. And I crammed for all the tests, only to forget what I had Learned two hours after taking them.


I remember being at a convention at which several members of a company were going to speak. The vice president of human resources and three national sales managers spent hours rehearsing and rerehearsing their speeches. They had numerous slides that illustrated every possible point. The vice president of human resources had nearly 100 slides ! The president of the company was also supposed to deliver an address at the convention. In command of both the context of the speech (what the audience wanted to know) and the content to be delivered, he showed just six slides. As you can imagine, the president had far more impact on the audience than the executives with their overloaded presentations.


Concerning a trouble your child made, the question "Who did it?" sets an instant alarm within children. They`re now faced with two unpleasant alternatives. If they lie and get away with it, they`ll have short-term relief but long-term guilt. If they tell the truth, they can expect a scolding or possibly a punishment. Worse yet, their confession may bring on an even more threatening question: "Why did you do it?" These questions might make him feel more guilty of his "crime." So you should explain the situation he`s involved in: "Your sister is very upset. Some pages were torn from her new notebook." Follow that with information: "If anyone in this family runs out of paper, ask me and I`ll help you find some."


Sometimes it wasn`t the aristocrats who set trends. In 15th- and 16th-century Europe, sumptuary laws were passed to restrict anyone but the upper classes from wearing certain clothes. Commoners were forbidden to wear luxurious fabrics and, in some cases, more than one color. Merchants, who had plenty of money to spend on clothes but were forced to be subject to these restrictions, came up with a creative form of rebellion. They began slashing their clothes to reveal other rich, colorful fabrics underneath. Ironically, this look became wildly popular with the aristocrats who had created the restrictive laws.


Sitting back and waiting for opportunities to fall in your lap may help you stay comfortable- but it will not help you progress with your goals. Risks certainly do feel, well, risky. but they can yield lovely rewards when they are calculated and well executed. If you plan to advance in your career, earn more money, and achieve your goals sooner, you must plan on taking the respective risks. The sweetest fruit is always on the thinnest branches. It is up to up to accomplish our potential in life by stepping out and taking a chance to find the greatest reward. The key to accomplishing great things is to take calculated chances- not reckless gambles. Taking calculated risks can serve as a catalyst for personal and professional growth. (Nothing ventured, nothing gained.)


A young man and his mother moved into our quiet neighborhood. When we first laid eyes on the young man, we saw a guy with shoulder-length hair dressed all in black. Everyone thought the worst: "Oh, no! A heathen devil-worshipper!" A few months later, he presented himself in ragged jeans, his head completely shaved. Again we thought the worst: "He`s turned into one of those n대-Nazi skinheads!" I later learned from his mother that her son is a sociology major at a university about 200 miles from here. He had to evacuate during Hurricane Katrina. The black attire we first saw was for a costume party he was attending that evening. He grew his hair long to donate to Locks of Love, which uses hair to make wigs for cancer patients who have lost their hair during chemo, hence the shaved head..
(Don`t judge a book by its cover)


Diversity is a fundamental property of the universe, along with matter, energy, space, time and many other phenomena that are present everywhere. Everything that you see that is different from anything else- and every difference between these things- is aspect of diversity. So diversity exists. Everywhere. It is a fact of life. But there`s more to it than that. Diversity makes life more interesting. If every house on the block looked the same, if every restaurant served the same food, if everyone talked to us for hours in a monotone about things we already knew- well, then life just woudn`t have much aliveness, would it? Diversity exposes us to new ways of living. (Variety is the spice of life)


Time is odd. You never have enough of it. It`s always going by too quickly. But then at the same time it goes immensely slowly, which is really weird when you think about it. If you notice that time is moving then it slows down considerably, but if you choose to ignore time and go about your business then it speeds up. It`s like when I look at the clock to see how long I`ve got left before I can go home, time moves slowly. I check it every ten minutes or so, or what seems like ten minutes, to discover that only a minute has passed. But if I ignore it and go on with my work then before I realize it, it`s time to go. ( A watched pot never boils)


The well-to-do patient moves from doctor to doctor, clinic to hospital, amassing a stack of documents which, at times, contain conflicting views and suggestions. Often, the new doctor orders repetition of tests that have just been performed. Patient and family end up in total confusion, unable to choose between the many options offered. It is not uncommon for the patient to spend huge sums without receiving any effective care and when the illness has worsened to a critical state, be sent off to a university hospital. Since the patient is consulting more than one expert, each of whom is in ignorance of what the other is doing, no one will accept responsibility in the event of a mishap. ( Too many cooks spoil the broth)


The sad things is that not enough people realize how much good can be accomplished when they affirm others. Instead of positive pushes, we get negative shoves. That`s because we live in a society that seems determined to focus on what`s wrong instead of what`s right. More than fifty years ago, Dale Carnegie said, "Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain- and most fools do." It`s too bad that his statement still rings true today. Now I suggest that we can form new habits. We can train ourselves to look for the good in others and to find reasons for praising them. We bring about one of those unique situations in which everybody wins because it`s impossible to make another person feel good without doing the same to yourself. Affirming others is the most valuable skill a person can have. It`s easy, it`s fun, and it gets fantastic results! And the more we do it, the better we get at it.


I have met numerous struggling people who blame everybody but themselves for their difficulties. One consequence of bulk blaming is "the world owes me a living syndrome." This manifests in statements like "why don`t people appreciate me?", "why hasn`t anyone discovered my talents?", and "life shouldn`t be this difficult- somebody should do something." The happiest approach is to figure that the world doesn`t owe us anything. Life is like a big supermarket where you are one of five billion products in the store. Your challenge is to represent value to other people= value in terms of being good company and in terms of being useful to people. If you represent good value, you will be in demand with friends and employers. If you`re a liability, you get left on the shelf.


Watch cars come off the assembly line, and you will see the same functions and capabilities in model after model. That`s what they`re designed for, that`s how they`re made. We buy them with the expectation that each will do the same thing, and the individual differences between cars are insignificant or nonexistent. People, however, are not products off an assembly line. even when we emerge from the same time and place, with the same training and upbringing, our differences are present from the start and will be present forever. Before you try to live up to someone else`s expectations, or reproduce someone else`s success, ask yourself whether that is what you were really made for.


Sadly, many of us continually postpone our happiness- indefinitely. It`s not that we consciously set out to do so, but that we keep convincing ourselves, "someday I`ll be happy." We tell ourselves we`ll be happy when our bills are paid, when we get out of school, get our first job, a promotion. we convince ourselves that life will be better after we get married, have a baby, then another. Then we are frustrated that the kids aren`t old enough and we`ll be more content when they are. We tell ourselves that our life will be complete when our spouses get their act together when we get a nicer car, when we are able to go on a nice vacation, or when we retire. And on and on and on! Meanwhile, life keeps moving forward. The truth is, there`s no better time to be happy than right now. If not now, when? Your life will always be filed with challenges. It`s best to admit this to yourself and decide to be happy anyway.


Optimism forms a core part of emotional life expansion. If we wish to live affectively we will have to root out self-defeating pessimism, replacing it with a rational, active form of optimism. Becoming an effective optimist requires more of us than putting on a forced smile and telling ourselves "everything will work out for the best. " Living at full capacity- a capacity beyond what most of us imagine possible- asks us to go beyond superficial formulas ("Don·t Worry, Be Happy!) and to understand an intelligent form of optimism. We will only expand the vitality and achievement in our lives if we understand what optimism is, why pessimism holds us back, and why some kinds of optimism restrain us rather than shoot us forward.


It is not always easy to change our patterns, but it is very possible. Wherever you are, you can get to where you want to be. Let us assume that you decide to go on a diet. This is the first week in which you start to do it. This very week (a) your mail box is stuffed with dinner invitations, cocktail party invitations, and anniversaries. These will come to you, particularly in the beginning. Let us say you make the decision that for the first time in your life you will open a savings account and begin to amass your personal fortune.


(b) You cancel dinner at an expensive hotel, which is part of your diet plan anyway, and now you are about to deposit the sixty-three dollars for the dinner to the bank. Isn`t that just the day that (c) your car insurance falls due, your brother-in-law needs the hundred dollars that you borrowed from him last Christmas,


and (d) your refrigerator even explodes? Imagine you are used to dressing like a bit of a slob. Every time you put your best trousers on, (e) you get them hopelessly dirty just by walking from the bedroom to the bathroom! Only, with your best trousers! Now the tendency is to think, "Well, that is the way I am, I can`t change." The truth is that you can change, but recognize that all change will be met with resistance.


Eighteen-year old Zola Budd made headlines during the 1984 Olympics as the barefoot South African who cost America`s Mary Decker her chance of a gold medal in the 3,000-meter race. Many people, including Decker, blamed Budd for the collision that caused Decker to drop out of the race. Budd wound up seventh and gained notoriety. Tapes of the race showed that the collision wasn`t anyone`s fault and that Decker could have avoided it.


Just as those headlines began to fade from memory, Budd had to face another adversity coming from Apartheid in South Africa. Her bid to win the English cross-country title in February 1985 ended when a protester ran on to the track and forced her off the course. In July another activist tried the same interference at a race in Edinburgh. The following week the police protected her as she won a race in Birmingham, England.

On August 26, the harassed runner, now a naturalized Briton but still fearing political protests, tried a new approach. She secretly entered a 5,000-meter race in London. That is, the promoters of the race kept it a secret. But once she was at the starting mark, the secret was out. But fortunately, there were no protesters in sight as Budd shaved more than 10 seconds off the women`s world record.


some psychologists believe that if you are in a good mood and someone asks you to do something, you are likely (a) to view the requester as truly in need of help. The favor seems reasonable. Conversely, the theory suggests, when you are angry you perceive a requester as being manipulative and the request as biased. Dr. Sandra Milbery and Margaret Clark conducted an experiment that found the happier the subjects, the more likely they were (b) to acquiesce to the wishes of another.


In another study, alice Isen and Paul Levin set out to make us a little happier to see if we would be more willing to do good deeds for others. Alice and Paul staked out library. One of them randomly (c) gave cookies to some of the people who visited the library, Later, in a seemingly unrelated encounter, the other researcher asked the patrons for help on a task. You guessed it, the patrons 좨해 a cookie (d) were more willing to help out.


The experimenters then tried to replicate their findings by (A) leaving dimes in public telephone booths. Some unwitting telephone users happened to

get a little profit while others found nothing. shortly after either finding the dime or finding nothing, the subjects saw someone who had dropped a stack of papers. It turns out that significantly more of those who found the dime (e) helped pick up the notes. If you can do something to make someone`s day a little brighter, your generosity will pay you back for it.


Honeybees cannot live alone. Their body structure and instincts equip them for life in a colony or community, where they have a complex social organization and the various duties are divided among the individuals according to physical fitness and age. An individual worker bee cannot live by itself. While it may continue to live if forcibly isolated from its mates, it fails to care for itself adequately, and soon dies.


Most insects have the ability to hibernate in winter, but the honeybee seems to have lost this. Since at low temperatures the bee will die, it must have the ability to make its own environment, so far as temperature is concerned. This makes a colony necessary to the bees in winter, so that they may collectively warm each other. Efficiency, if no necessity, demands that the work of the colony be divided, and such a division of labor tends to enhance the need to maintain the colony.


The physical structure of the honeybee is further suited for the defense of the entire colony rather than for its own defense. The bee`s sting is used only and is made more effective by the fact that it is left behind in the victim. With the loss of the sting, however, the bee dies. This kind of defensive weapon is not of service to the individual, but to the community.


Linus Pauling is the only person who has ever won two (unshared) Nobel Prizes. If you are interested in science, you may know that he won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954. Then again, you might recognize his name because of his involvement with anti-nuclear movements in the 1950s and 1960s- and his Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign to stop open air nuclear testing.


Pauling worked with US government during World WarⅡ and helped to develop conventional weapons and explosives. But in 1945, when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, everything changed for him. He began to study the effects of radiation on the human body- the structure of the molecules and the way that they could be passed from generation to generation. He became convinced that nuclear explosions had a terrible effect on living molecules and that using nuclear weapons, or even open air nuclear tests, would do terrible things to people and the environment for years and years to come.


Pauling believed it was his moral duty to tell people about what he had discovered. He began to speak publicly in favor of peace, disarmament and the end of nuclear testing. This was not popular in the USA in the 1940s and 1950s. He was accused of being an anti-american and communist, and he lost friends, supporters, and his job as a university professor. But Pauling continued his campaign against the nuclear bomb. In 1957 he organised a petition calling for an end to open air nuclear testing. Over 11,000 scientists signed it. As a result of this, he was given the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. a year later, in 1963, the first Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed.


Initiated during the Sui Dynasty(581~618), and lasting more than 1,300 years until the Qing Dynasty(1644~1911), the imperial examination was the fundamental system used by China`s feudal dynasties to select government officials.


(1)Held mainly on county, provincial and national levels, the exams were based on Confucian books, sources of ruling ideology in feudal China, and had many sections including interviews, writing from memory, answering questions, composition writing, and ode writing. Other subjects, such as history, law, calligraphy, and math, (2)were used as a gauge to test professional knowledge.


The examination system offered common people an opportunity to improve their social status based on the strength of their talent, as only the most talented were selected to participate ;in the administration of the empire.


Since the exam were practically the only path for common people to lead a privileged life, the competition was extremely fierce. It was common in ancient China (3) for intellectuals to fall victim to the examination system after years of preparation.


Passing the exams became the ultimate aim of schooling. Most candidates tended to repeat the same material. They only studied for the exams` sake, rather than thoroughly learning all the material. After memorizing enough to pass the exams, they could not put their knowledge to practically use.


Humiliated by a series of bitter defeats in the late Qing Dynasty, China was forced to reexamine its education system, (5) which was suffocating under the imperial exam system. As more and more modern schools, mainly foreign language, military and technical institution, were set up, China finally aborted the imperial examination system in 1906.






















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